There’s no two ways about it non-paternity events happen and have happened forever. I am a haplogroup enthusiast and also insist on trying to prove every ancestral line with DNA, which means not only testing the recent ancestry with autosomal but also researching families and locating relatives who carry all ancestors haplogroups. Using the surname and haplogroup projects and all the autosomal tools, today we can have true and exact ancestries and history that is our own biologically.
Of course also have on one’s tree those who reared us, and I even have honored a few of the family friends families who were instrumental in our lives. Not just my own, but his, theirs, as well as mine. The families grow exponentially.
I reject the idea of any stigma about any birth relationship for any reason. Period.
The search must be matter of fact, no emotion, but how do you tactfully ask a prospective tester, “do you have any reason to think you are not really the son of X?”; “do you think you might have been adopted and not the son of X?” or any other delicate issue of birth question.
There is no easy way. And, you cannot use looks. I dare not try to describe a family who ‘appeared’ to be the correct family to add an autosomal test to, the y-DNA was 37 for 37 and they looked so much alike. The one family never tested the au-DNA but later it proved to be a different dad. But the caution here was they are one of the R1b lines and it was so easy to be wrong. In the end the MRCA for all three was quite recent and all of them were non-paternity events sometime over the last 200 years.
There is no way to rely only on autosomal DNA to identify every ancestral line – you must use the y-dna and if for nothing but the joy of it learn at least a few of the mt-DNA haplogroups of ancestors also. There might be little genealogy from mt-DNA but there is happiness in following your haplogroup across the world back to Africa.
This all means every ancestry needs all the siblings and half siblings researched and all their descendants.
The genetic family tree of all the world, I hope this happens and I hope it is all used for goodness.
The insistence of biological descendants is in inheritance and society requirements, but when I think some of the rules come because a king or religious entity did not want power to be built among families and not because there was any issue of 1st cousins marrying, I wonder how many people’s lives were ruined, emotionally or in society, because of a non-existent problem spread via ideas.
Un-think is my motto.
And, enjoy your families research with new and expanded people. From my childhood introduction to ancestry with both sides of my family, through to the digital searches beginning in the last and the new century finding cousins near and distant gives not only the photos and family bibles spread around all families but also now the chance to locate people who carry the families DNA signatures.
You must have male descendants of two 2 TWO – sons of any patriarch.
These charts are from the trees of Ancestry.com
You cannot test a man and claim any – not any – patriarch through the results of the man’s DNA test. If you want the genetic signature of any male ancestor, any patriarch, born any time, and you cannot test him – you must test two of his sons – or male line descendants of two different sons of the man/patriarch in question.
You can use this method of proving male line families with the y-dna and the reach of the y-DNA surpasses any research the autosomal can offer you for identifying families. But you must still use both.
The next question – but is the person with this proved genetic ancestral line related to you and this is where the magic of autosomal DNA can help – BUT use caution.
If you will try to use distant relatives for proving any of your lines, you must triangulate with near relatives and prove that an autosomal distant relative is really a relative – more over is really related via the family you think they are related to you on – they might be on your mother’s side but maybe not maybe from your dad’s side. distant matches are simply iffy – see blog on triangulation.
Remember pedigree collapse and how many people who have several ancestries from one area, you can be related to another person two ways, or have lots of small amounts of shared genes and in fact, some is just DNA noise and two people are more distant than previously thought and sometimes not related at all.
Not all 4th to distant cousins should be guessed at.
Tree matching is risky – if there are two to multiple incorrect trees – you can have false results being created from falsified trees.
You need a chromosome browser and view exactly which chromosomes two people match on and see where you can identify families in segments of shared genes.
Research – all siblings of all ancestors and all their descendants.
Locate men who are ancestral line males of the patriarchs of your families (also locate the female line descendants for any of your mothers), and using also autosomal DNA make sure you are related to the testers and then you will have a family tree not just written in stone but in DNA – and you can bet the farm on it.
See in contents the Jean Manco tribute and her preserved site – there is a link at the bottom of her page and you and search where your haplogroup(s) are in archaeological digs around the world.
Also see her Building History webpage and let’s continue to support Jean Manco
The man that started it all
And a really wonderful site for learning about your haplogroups once you have them.