ftDNA Family Finder ~ The Results Are In! Now What?

Family Tree DNA (ftDNA), my first love, my favorite. But everyone knows I have tested with many companies, love them all, and so what is all the fuss I make about everyone testing with or uploading to (if possible) DNA results with ftDNA?  It is the bells and whistles (DNA for genealogy tools), and they also test for matching y-DNA (paternal line) and mt-DNA (maternal line) and this means we almost have it all – well a lot of it at one company, Family Tree DNA.

Family Tree DNA has magnificent instructions for all of this, countless other bloggers also have shared instructions so why me?

I am making the instructions as simple, and as stage one beginning, as I can. And I am making screen captures so you don’t need my instructions hardly at all and you can see step by step. There are several other tools also but this will make you an expert in the DNA 101.

When you sign in, you open to the DASHBOARD page.


I first tested mt-DNA as seen in the Order History list on the left, July 11, 2005 and the last upgrade of analyzing my H haplogroup April 3, 2014 – completed on the anniversary of my mother’s passing.

While you have been/are waiting for results you want to take care of business and set up information about your ancestors, if known, including any family tree. You will want to see also the blog I have on privacy and settings for sharing, but you must make sure your settings are turned onto “share with matches” or you won’t see anything when the results come in. On the privacy and sharing page(s) you will see the share-tree settings (and why on earth they call anything public, I still do not know, because the databases are not public). At least make sure you will be sharing with “MY MATCHES” on on the settings for your tree. And on each setting, be sure to click save. In the profile information there is info about earliest known ancestor, so be sure to fill in that and anything else you want to share.

You will also want to add a tree and ancestral surnames so the DNA for genealogy tools can be realized. 

I suggest not adding a tree with all the names you have collected; this only muddles the results when you include all the in-laws and extended family, and ancestors too far back in time to produce meaningful autosomal matches. Add all the known family who could be biologically related. The Family Finder is autosomal DNA, and this DNA test reads a limited number of generations magnificently.  TMI (too much information) is to be avoided in setting up your page for DNA for genealogy.

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The results are in and you see on your dashboard page several categories to click under the FAMILY FINDER section. Matches, Chromosome Browser, Linked Relationships, myOrigins, ancestralOrigins. (The Wellness Report has to be added – they should move that button from that section)

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These are matches. Beside each matching person is their name and information about their earliest ancestors if you click on their name  — that is, if they filled out all the information. Little icons will show you if they took other tests and if they have a tree. On the far right, also blocked out for privacy, are the ancestral surnames a person might have provided. If the two of you share any surnames the computer will highlight those matching surnames in bold print. On your main matches page you can search for specific surnames. See the two checks at the top right for slots to enter names – SEARCH NAME or SEARCH ANCESTRAL SURNAMES. Entering a name in the top slot will give you ONLY testers for whom that is their first, middle or last name. If you  search in the bottom slot, then you will find everyone who has that name among all their ancestors, including themselves. So if you are searching for a common name like Johnson, the top slot will filter out a lot of people you don’t really care about.

The matches list has many pieces of added information. The match date always tells you when each of your matches first turned up, and you can see when new matches appeared. Another feature offers a guess at what the relationship with each match might be — father son, aunt niece, 1st cousin etc.

Next the all-important actual numbers of shared centiMorgans of shared genes (think of it as a measure like ounces, or pounds). The next slot gives you the longest (solid/single/linked) block of shared genes. I will share below, hopefully, links to great charts that show how many centiMorgans two people should share for each relationship distance. (YES, this varies – and we will get to that. People could be related two ways among many other issues – wait – later) The amount of shared genes is well understood and so can be calculated by you and me and all by seeing the combination of how many shared genes, and what is the biggest group of connected genes total. Here is one of my lists of actual results amounts – but below I hope to link to a magnificent chart that is handsome and pretty.

1 centimorgans shared cousins

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There are several categories of information we can learn, accessing the various ways to sort your matches – see the check above and you can go through each section to learn what each tool shows.

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There re important tools to help sort your matches and there are the tools for matching IN COMMON and matching NOT IN COMMON. These tools let you see when two of your matches are or are not related to each other, and that can help you figure out which side of the family some matches are on.  From the list of your matches, see the tiny box to the left of their name and tick the box.  Then select IN COMMON WITH or NOT IN COMMON WITH in the boxes at the top alongside the box for CHROMOSOME BROWSER (That one will let you see people who match in the same place on the same chromosome).

y blog 2nd1x in common

These results are me IN COMMON WITH a maternal 2nd cousin, once removed. Having multiple 2nd cousins from each line to test (or relatives nearer in relationship than 2nd cousin) can separate and identify almost every one of your matches (depending).  No more guessing how you are related to many matches – at least identifying family lines.

You see also on these pages with matches, many of the people have a tiny icon in either red or blue. The people are identified in a male and female shape – dusty blue and mauve pink – but to their right the tiny icons. My child has a purple icon – he has both my paternal and maternal lines, and we see some bright red and some bright blue. This is accomplished by near relatives testing. Using your ftDNA FAMILY TREE you can LINK these people to you on the tree. Then the relatives the two of you share IN COMMON will always automatically show on the match as part of their identification with either the red or blue or purple icon. More on this in the 202 blog on Family Finder matches.

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On your Family Tree DNA tree, when other near family members have tested, the computer system will be able to link you and them and this will flag your matches as to how you are related to matches IN COMMON.

What if you did not test with Family Tree DNA? Some results from some other testing companies are compatible and can be uploaded to the site. Here is the link to upload from MyHeritage (I think yes) 23andme (maybe not depending on when) AncestryDNA (yes I think so but there have been glitches?)


But you really really want to consider adding the Family Tree DNA Family Finder test to your DNA for Genealogy testing. Here is our project to join. You are buying directly from them – this is not buying anything from me.


Another exciting thing about testing with or uploading to ftDNA is that this is where the males test their y-DNA for surname projects to identify family lines. Some of them also take the Family Finder test, so you can learn more  than just autosomal matching. For instance in your FF matches you may be a Mr Smith and you search your matches and you find a cousin Mr Smith. Let’s say you can prove he is related to you via traditional genealogy; if he has tested his y-DNA then you can learn about your y-DNA haplogroup from his results.

The y-DNA extends back hundreds of years to thousands of years  and you can not only learn genealogy;  you can also  learn the anthropology of your haplogroup.  Just learning your basic haplogroup can begin your journey to following its migration through time. Of course there will always be another test to add to learn more – but choose wisely and if you feel a need or desire to add on then you can always add on later during special sales.

Matching is magnificent and let’s ring some bells and blow some whistles.

y blog 2nd1x in common on chromo browser

Your Chromosome Browser (above) will show where on your chromosomes that you match someone else; you can compare up to five people at a time. This helps you see how scattered and sometimes random the matching bits are among the cousins across the chromosomes. All of these people are related IN COMMON with me and with each other. They are all mostly 2nd cousin, 2nd cousin 1x and 1st cousin 1x.  I share again also the chart (below) where the yellow dots show how with each generation we inherit less DNA and that DNA becomes randomly scattered.

cherie fan chart dna best names

au-DNA or at-DNA is shared randomly. By using known near relatives to compare yourself and others to one another you can identify matches and prove ancestral families.

Here is a blank fan chart to share. I made mine with only seven generations.

1 Copy of Copy of Copy of chart copy

A wee bit easier to read for the seniors with just 7 generations and prints a little bit larger on standard copy paper.

This is just the beginning this is just day one – follow on through the next steps…

For cMs charts and explanations galore!


Another Bell and Whistle is the X-gene matching (blog coming soon – with new charts).

Are you a male who has tested only autosomal and wishes to add the y-DNA with all the bells and whistlers for that? Here’s a guide:


Who begat whom? Choose your y-dna testing candidate(s) carefully.

There are no two ways about it; non-paternity events happen and have happened forever. I am a haplogroup enthusiast and also insist on trying to prove every ancestral line with DNA, which means not only testing the recent ancestry with autosomal but also using y-DNA and mt-DNA to researching families identify all ancestors’ haplogroups. Using the surname and haplogroup projects and all the autosomal tools, today we can have true and exact ancestries and history that is our own biologically.

Of course, also have on one’s tree those who reared us, and I even have honored a few of the family friends’ families who were instrumental in our lives. Not just my own, but his, theirs, as well as mine. The families grow exponentially.

I reject the idea of any stigma about any birth relationship for any reason. Period.

The search must be matter of fact, no emotion, but how do you tactfully ask a prospective tester, “do you have any reason to think you are not really the son of X?”; “Do you think you might have been adopted and not the son of X?” Or any other delicate issue of birth question.

There is no easy way. And, you cannot use looks. I recently wanted an autosomal test for a family (who must remain anonymous) that looked so much like the person I was helping and had a 37 for 37 y-DNA match. They never did the test, but we later found the real dad elsewhere. The caution here was they are one of the R1b lines and it was so easy to be wrong. In the end the MRCA for all three was quite recent and all of them were non-paternity events sometime over the last 200 years.

There is no way to rely only on autosomal DNA to identify every ancestral line – you must use the y-dna and if for nothing but the joy of it learn at least a few of the mt-DNA haplogroups of ancestors also. There might be little genealogy from mt-DNA but there is happiness in following your haplogroup across the world back to Africa.

This all means every ancestry needs all the siblings and half siblings researched and all their descendants.

The genetic family tree of all the world, I hope this happens and I hope it is all used for goodness.

The insistence on biological descendants serves inheritance and society requirements, but when I think that some of the rules came because a king or religious entity did not want power to be built among families and not because there was any issue of 1st cousins marrying, I wonder how many people’s lives were ruined, emotionally or in society, because of a non-existent problem spread for selfish purposes.

Un-think is my motto.

And, enjoy your families research with new and expanded people. From my childhood introduction to ancestry with both sides of my family, through to the digital searches beginning in the last and the new century finding cousins near and distant gives not only the photos and family bibles spread around all families but also now the chance to locate people who carry the families’ DNA signatures.

You must have male descendants of two 2 TWO – sons of any patriarch.

These charts are from the trees of Ancestry.com

You cannot test a man and claim any – not any – patriarch through the results of the man’s y-DNA test. If you want the genetic signature of any male ancestor, any patriarch, born any time, and you cannot test the man himself – you must test two of his sons – or male-line descendants of two different sons of the patriarch in question.

You can use this method of proving male line families with the y-dna and the y-DNA can take you back much further than any research the autosomal can offer for identifying families. But you must still use both.

The next question: But is the person with this proved genetic ancestral line related to you and this is where the magic of autosomal DNA can help – BUT use caution.

cherie fan chart dna best names

Autosomal DNA is wonderful and this process cannot be achieved without it – but to prove direct male ancestral lines back in time you need y-DNA. This chart illustrates the rapid rate at which the au-DNA (at-DNA) disappears from each of us.

If you want to use distant relatives for proving any of your lines, you must triangulate with near relatives and prove that an autosomal distant relative is really a relative – moreover is really related via the family you think they are related to you on; They might be on your mother’s side but maybe not; maybe from your dad’s side. Distant matches are simply iffy – see blog on triangulation.

Remember pedigree collapse and how many people have overlapping ancestral lines; you can be related to a person two ways, or have lots of small amounts of shared genes. In fact, some is just DNA noise and two people may be more distant than previously thought or sometimes not related at all.

Not all 4th-to-distant cousins should be guessed at.

Tree matching is risky – if there are two to multiple incorrect trees – you can have false results being created from falsified trees.

To be really sure, a chromosome browser can show you exactly which chromosomes two people match on; then you can identify families who share the same genes on the same chromosome segments.

Research all siblings of all ancestors and all their descendants.

Use y-DNA (on two lines) to identify direct male descendents of the patriarchs of your families (also locate the female-line descendants for any of your mothers), then use autosomal DNA make sure you are related to the testers. If everything matches you will have a family tree not just written in stone but in DNA – and you can bet the farm on it.

1 proved 2 Copy of Copy of male line ydna

Until there are two male descendants from two male sons of any patriarch that match, one cannot be sure of the genetic signature of any patriarch. Chart made from Ancestry.com tree

01 best Copy of 67 y marker chart mutation rate

y-DNA changes very slowly – this is a made-up chart from a couple of long lost sources – must get on the mission to update. This ONLY illustrates the idea that different genes mutate at different rates and this is how the judgment is made for the speed of mutation and so how many generations are possible in distance between two male descendants. All the markers are rated from fastest to slowest. I need to update!

01a Copy of cherie known dna haplogroups

Using au-DNA (at-DNA) to prove relationships between you and any male line descendant relative you can prove the correct lines through your relative’s y-dna

p ydna ancestor tree

Once you know the y-DNA haplogroup you can follow the ancestral long past genealogy and to anthropology. Chart made from Ancestry.com tree

See in contents the Jean Manco tribute and her preserved site – there is a link at the bottom of her page and you and search where your haplogroup(s) are in archaeological digs around the world.

Also see her Building History webpage and let’s continue to support Jean Manco

The man that started it all

And a really wonderful site for learning about your haplogroups once you have them.




Are you a lick away from Granny’s DNA? Forensic DNA For Genealogy ~ Artifact Testing

Oh, I can’t wait. I must have something processed with the new hope, new players for DNA for genealogy testing companies, it might be this will get off the ground this time. Toothbrushes, letters with stamps, hair. My brother-in-law has possession of two of my dad’s wisdom teeth that were pulled. I have two of his letters with stamps and partial flaps, that I have talked incessantly about testing since 2012.

There are so many artifacts of our loved ones and we should stop touching them and place them carefully in an appropriate safe place.

We work to identify family often because we loved granny so much, or never knew great granny, but there are also the very special artifacts that give us hope for the identification of deceased members of the military returning home, and the Jane and John Does and more.

I can’t imagine there is any Skilcraft Pen that was used for an emergency battlefield  tracheotomy, that has survived to get the DNA from, but I would not go without my vintage Skilcraft in my ladies bag, which yes includes makeup.

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“…There are other things these pens can be reportedly used for that weren’t covered in the original requirements. It’s rumored that it can be used for an emergency tracheotomy where the plastic tube is placed in an incision in the trachea to allow breathing from an obstruction…”


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These are photos of my personal skilcraft. – This of course is a dream for future testing.

A necessity for the well prepared person – use at home, on the road, or on the battlefield – it will write too.

The possibilities are many and the questions are growing. What if the DNA turns out not to be the person you hoped for – someone else licked the stamp? When can you use hair shaft for having commercial autosomal DNA?

I rescued a box of letters from one family years ago. I have lots of letters and so on but one family collection in particular. I did find them and gave most of them to the descendant and spouse. I said then there have been a few that I worked with to identify and locate and those were in a shoe box and would have to come later.

The box is found and the possibilities are just wonderful – two generations – really three of letter writers and savers.

In the early 20th century brother Hugh writes to his sister Bessie. Bessie writes to Chris Sr and Chris Sr writes to Bessie. All these have sealed envelope flaps also and there are many. Later Bessie writes to her son in WWII Chris Jr and Chris Jr writes to his Mom. Then Chris has about a dozen letters of girl friends writing to him and another dozen of military friends writing to him from his training through the war.

I was able to find so many people, I need to make findagraves for those who do not have them. They are all gone now – but their DNA might be in amazing pieces of history.

Copy of bessie to chris and chris to later wife

This WWII letter from Chris Jr. to Margaret is marked RETURN TO SENDER. Idle Gossip Sinks Ships and adds ‘sealed envelope’. And it is still sealed, opened from the side, and empty. Could this be the DNA of Chris Jr. on the sealed back flap? There are several envelopes likely to have his DNA

Copy of hugh crane to bessie and friends to chris brown jr wwii

The top letter was from Margaret to Chris Jr.  I am willing to bet her DNA is what sealed the flap of that top envelope – it has S.W.A.K. and her kiss in red lipstick. There are several of them from Margaret S. (also identified) But the bottom letter, maybe there was no censor at that facility that day – but this would be scary to hazard more than a guess whether this will really be Hailey or not, but the back is sealed. It might also have just gotten stuck to itself but it would be a remote chance. Did he come back from the war? I still have not found his descendants to share the letter.


1 1Copy of Copy of bessie to chris father and chris father to bessie

The top love letter was from Bessie to Chris Sr, and the other two are from Chris Sr to Bessie. All the flaps are sealed on the envelopes


1 Copy of hugh crane to sister bessie and to chris jr

The top letter — from Hugh to his sister Bessie — would be priceless for researching Bessie’s father’s family,. The bottom is to Chris Jr and the writer begins ‘to Jr.’ and signs… ‘write son’ and then a terrible scribble of a signature.

totheletter DNA

There is also this exciting Australian company and we are excited to follow the progress of their initial batches of testing artifacts. I am following them also on Facebook and we are expecting to hear in the next weeks about the results. You must follow them there also.


totheletter DNA Facebook page




LivingDNA is said to be taking on testing of artifacts but I am yet to see a price but you can write to them and ask!


The list is growing of all the wonderful letters – possibly with DNA and I guess I have left the trail to mine in this digital record.

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1 Copy of Copy of margaret card 2

Of all the letters, Margaret wrote and wrote countless letters. Chris kept them all and several of the wonderful cards she sent along with a lock of hair.

1 Copy of margaret hair


Soon, we will be testing DNA from everything from hair brushes to toothbrushes but we will have to make sure they were not shared. The desire to get DNA from our deceased ancestors is so powerful that now many funeral homes offer to scrape for a fee. How far back can we go?

I love to share information about the best in information. Besides best one of the best genetic genealogists, Blaine T Bettinger also has a website to follow AND please follow me also – Blaine’s website will lead you to his many projects that we all must support. His shared cMs project just this week hit 50,000 submissions. He has a teaching site also with fees and he has his wonderful free access page

I recommend following Blaine particularly for the artifact testing because he is among the very first to mention this new testing and also to try this.

Blaine’s site:


I have no shame – I will ask for your readership also – and on the right you can click and follow me also for the latest I see and hear. I am a short space behind in artifact testing and report but you will have my story on how this works out also in the coming months.


I also want a tradition of music for genealogy – songs for blogs – you will see my music for family history page also with my collection of songs and videos for genealogy, genetic genealogy, history and herstory!

Heirlooms by Amy Grant



Its Not Percentages Or Pie Charts For Me, I Have Long Cursed The Admixture Reading ~ I Long For Mamma – All My Mammas Back Through Time

~ Happy Birthday Mamma ~

There are at least three blogs about admixture readings and results in my contents list. One compares my different admixture results from eight different companies; another notes that DNA testing is more than a pie chart; and others note the disappointments of autosomal testing period. I believe people should first learn a dozen ancestors’ haplogroups and then enjoy the au-DNA aka at-DNA cousins later.

Note I did not say ‘enjoy the admixture.’ Article after book, after blog, after post, talks about admixture this, that, and the other. But there is more to DNA testing and also more to autosomal testing than admixture. This is not an identity story; this is not about any one culture but all my cultures and ancestries.

Besides admixture and cousins, the DNA testing also tells about a person’s medical genetics, and one must remember in America the insurance issues. Your DNA research possibly includes your pre-existing conditions and this was, is, and will be a factor. Some participate in DNA for medical for posterity and others participate hoping for improved health but are there consequences? The wider world might have countries with health-care-for-all but they do decide when not to spend lots of time and money on walking dead people, and these markers could, in an imperfect world, sign the death warrant for ourselves or our descendants and relatives.

The commercial autosomal testing fun really centers around the discovery of cousins. Many companies sold their tests by selling the admixture. But it is understood for most in the field those admixture results are limited – we only get genes, for reading, from random ancestors for a limited number of generations. For those who do read the fine print – one company used to say of the admixture results: ‘…for entertainment purposes only…’. But this test tells us quite accurately our near relatives through 2nd cousins and then will identify some of your 3rd cousins in the same database and back through a few more generations. It can sometimes even identify 5th and 6th cousins (some using multiple testers can see some other relatives, but not that often)

Law enforcement has now discovered the identity of their bad guys (at least the American bad guys – looks like the rest of the world will bail out of the databases – maybe) in online databases and it can be as simple as adding up cMs, (centiMorgans – amounts of shared genes) to spot and find their perpetrator. We may have to now confront the emotions of near trauma as well as far with this added use of the commercial companies’s databases.

I can’t speak to the history of migrations in this short note but every continent has its changes in DNA — the human turnover throughout history or herstory as the case might be.

We know that much of Europe was populated by people with dark skin – and this white question and social problems are not in this story of the early peopling of Europe and the later re-peopling of Europe. Countless myths from all continents seem to add their own story, of some kind of caste system. I don’t know those stories – I am searching for my ancestors – all colors – all regions – all continents – we all have them.

I love Jean Manco’s old data that is a surviving collection of ancient peoples’ haplogroups from their sequenced DNA. At least with many of those results we can possibly see where haplogroups were and when. (See the link to her rescued site below from archive.org)

Before autosomal-DNA we had the y-DNA and the many projects – this was the foundation of DNA for genealogy. We could see from family to family who matched who and begin to build a family history using DNA as an added record. In some ways the autosomal cheapened the beauty of our personal ancestry and today we concentrate on what DNA does not do and what is wrong with it.

I still beg to remember what all three main DNA tests do and what is thrilling about each of them.

When asked about her ancestry, my mother first would answer – “I’m Irish.” “I’m Irish.”

The nuns at the orphanage would not have put the emphasis on Irish ancestry for mother and her siblings. Straight black hair and eyes, and swarthy skin of a brown golden hue. When I looked up at the face of my mother as a baby I did not see the lily white, blue eyed, red-haired whoever of my father’s family. My father’s family thought mother just lying when she said Irish.

Mother does have Irish ancestry also and with most of her autosomal admixture ancestors being too far back to show much Native American anyway – mother’s results were redeeming for her – she is/was Irish.

But mother did want to know who the Native Americans are in her ancestry and she wanted to know the German and the English and who were those Middle Easterners and also who were those people in Quebec? Some French and some Native American. The story was told that friends of the family had decided to perm her hair. It was suggested that having a perm wave would make her look more European. Apparently this did not make her look European but made her look more African and as her hair began to grow out my father cut the permed hair off of her. This picture of her is from this assault. There were more than two dozen views of this showing the cut hair and the bruises.

Her divorce papers do not mention her hair being cut off, but this story came from several sources. And it was said she was not the only one who had this to happen to her. My father cut off my stepmother’s hair and that is in the divorce papers.

1 Copy of knight 1st divorce betty 1958 17 april

Taking all ancestors, for all time – the good with the bad.

I want to remember all my ancestors and family and extended family from Mother back and my father also. This is conflicted of course, but I loved them both.  And this means I have to love them all, all the way back – the good, the bad, and the ugly.

Today the populations of Asia, Europe and Africa have moved and moved again – all the populations of the earth including North and South America. Just because we can only see a few of our ancestors in these admixture results and they only reach so far in time does not mean we should walk away from what we can learn. We might find a mother or a father who needs remembering – whether recent or in the long forgotten past.

But, would people please test? Forget the admixture, test, and let’s see if we are cousins. Did we once share a common ancestor? That would mean that at one time, I was you, and you were me, we were that ancestress – or ancestor.  Let’s research and find common ground, somewhere in time, reading our digitized shared history, in shared centiMorgans, and create some love and memory of that shared ancestor and for each other.

I am not sure which of the TV series about the American South and slavery was the one whose scenes I remember so well. They showed a white woman sleeping with a black man – she was likely the mistress of the home and he a slave. She might have been the daughter or daughter-in-law – I don’t remember. But the show made her out to be a drunken slut – as if no lady would sleep with a black man unless they were impaired or bad in some way. Later in the show she has the baby that resulted from the encounter and if I remember rightly the baby was drowned at birth or some such horrible murder or cruelty being given away because of what the baby looked like. I can’t remember – I should check this I guess and name the show, but it was horrible to see then as it is horrible to remember it now.

This is still the reality of mixed peoples in singular societies. But DNA shows us there are few societies that are only one group of peoples. No matter how small, the traces of a person’s other many diversified ancestries can be found clearly for some and vaguely for others but they are there to learn about. I love and honor and cherish all my ancestors – no matter who they are.

My parents quickly divorced and I was ‘taken’ by my father’s family. Mother was around geographically but always thought of as different in that southern American society. The DNA test gave her what she had wanted – proof that she had lots of European ancestry. Not that she need to be European – she needed to be believed – she was hurt being called a liar. DNA redeemed her word and mine.

I must write a note about all the talk about racial purity or the idea of it. Write, only because this topic is going around again. Adding the tool of DNA I wonder if this so-called purity should not be renamed in-bred something. This goes for everybody. But only geneticists like Dr. Wells and Dr. Church and Dr Khan and our up-and-coming leaders can tell us what the introduction of new population’s genes means for any people.

The caste system had to be active in many of the generations we have learned about. There are the damned walls. No am not going there – but of course, archaeologists find the walls and fences.

The beauty of our sameness in our shared human DNA can be compared and loved. Through DNA, racial, social, etc. differences can fall away! Oops – not exactly. Now we have the genes that say we are high risk for heart disease, a line might be prone to cancer, or be a carrier of the Warrior Gene. Today we can test fetuses, we can test our dates before we marry them… Admixture is the least of it…

I think back to how hard my father’s family worked to keep custody of me. I still wonder if I had come out a little bit darker if they would have kept me at all.



My mother would rail against my being so harsh on my father and for that matter so would my stepmother. Both held kindness as a virtue and were forgiving. His life was one broken sad story after another but he kept putting one foot in front of the other. In the later 1970s he finally had the benefits of modern diagnosis. University Medical Center explained to us as a family he was severely dyslexic. He hid this well. Some aspects had always been obvious but laughed off, and not really noticed, the rest was hidden in rage. The shame came in him not taking the lessons offered that would have changed his life.  Some family members thought him too old, and that this would be a waste of time and wanted him back at work collecting those union wages. Unfortunately, I had no say in these matters.


Please see the blogs about the wonderful journey of DNA haplogroups of our families – the mt-DNA for all and the y-DNA for men only. Let’s get back to the foundations of DNA for genealogy and leave aside the ‘scandals’ fo autosomal’s admixture .

You can test your, and your families’ y- and mt-DNA and then learn your family haplogroup(s). You do not need to refine them to the maximum possible testing level, the basics are wonderful. The history of the planet’s peoples becomes your history/herstory – everyone’s – all peoples of all the earth


I write often about identifying the relatives and ancestral families using also y-DNA with au-DNA – this explains a bit about how it works.


Copy 1 of 1990 tzfat and edan reflect

We are all many people – I honor all mine.


This is my favorite story about pedigree collapse. This is of course about Europe. The same movement happens worldwide, on all continents, over and over through many ages and so for each of ourselves we must remember to look for ourselves in ‘almost’ every population of the earth.

A wonderful read:

“…The mathematics of descent has fascinated many people. “If we could go back and live again in all of our two hundred and fifty million arithmetical ancestors of the eleventh century,” Henry Adams wrote in 1904 of those with Norman-English blood, “we should find ourselves doing many surprising things, but among the rest we should certainly be ploughing most of the fields of the Contentin and Calvados; going to mass in every parish church in Normand y; rendering military service to every lord, spiritual or temporal, in all this region; and helping to build the Abbey Church at MontSaint- Michel.” And, more recently, the sociobiologist Edward O. Wilson has written, “The gene pool from which one modern Briton has emerged spreads over Europe, to North Africa, the Middle East, and beyond. The individual is an evanescent combination of genes drawn from this pool, one whose hereditary material will soon be dissolved back into it.”…”



1Copy of 01a Copy of cherie known dna haplogroups

Cousins who carry either the y-DNA or mt-DNA of my ancestors have tested their DNA and learned the haplogroups. We both have also tested autosomal DNA and established that we are cousins and at the correct amounts to prove the paper genealogy to establish these genetic stories of the ancestors. Learning about all haplogroups is necessary to understand any one haplogroup. Using your matches you can learn if your family tested their y or mt DNA and learn more about your ancestry through theirs. (Chart from ancestryDOTcom)

DNA testing does have some downsides – but I love my DNA testing – honoring and remembering every one of my people warts and all as they say.

Copy of photo repair and preservation

Shirley Ann Kidd – the original only remaining photo. Even with the damage the picture is better.

Happy Birthday Mamma:



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I certainly share links to other genetic genealogists who I believe are the best to learn from. And I share links to the best information I know about, sites for records and where to test and why. I am blessed and honored that a few writers have also shared my work and stories.